Normal temperature: Adults= 100-102.5° F, average being 101.3° F.
Pulse Rate: Adults 60-160 beats per minute; Puppies 220 beats per minute.
Respiration: 10-30 breaths per minute, resting.
Toenails: It is important to keep your dog's nails short. The longer the nails become, the more pressure is exerted on the bones in the foot. This condition is painful and can lead to structural problems.
COMMON MEDICAL TERMS:
ACEPROMAZINE (ACE) - A commonly used tranquilizer for dogs, often used as a preanesthetic agent.
*Due to a high incidence of adverse reactions ACEPROMAZINE should never be used on a boxer!
ADVANTAGE - Kills fleas and flea larvae. Topical.
AMITRIPTYLINE - Medication for treatment of separation anxiety or obsessive compulsive disorders. Most common side effect of amitriptylline (Elavil Rx) is sedation. Some dogs also experience "dry mouth" effects from a decrease in salivation and sometimes increase their drinking, which may be an effort to combat this effect. Low blood pressure (hypotension) is possible when using amitriptylline, as well. In severe instances, this could lead to symptoms like fainting when getting up or after exercise. Constipation and urine retention have been seen in some pets on amitriptylline. Serious side effects include seizure induction and blockage of conduction in the heart but these seem to pretty rare.
AMOXICILLIN - This medicine is a penicillin antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.
ANAL GLANDS - Anal gland disease is a common problem in cats and dogs. The anal glands, also called "anal sacs",can become impacted, infected and abscessed. Affected dogs and cats may lick the anal area, "scoot" along the floor, or have problems with defecation.
BLOAT - Term that is synonymous with the more scientific term "Gastric Dilatation/Volvulus." It is often called GDV. That means that a dog's stomach distends with air to the point that it goes into shock and may die. Dilatation means that the stomach is distended with air, but it is located in the abdomen in its correct place. Volvulus means that the distention is associated with a twisting of the stomach on its longitudinal axis.
This condition can be life threatening. If you suspect Bloat get your dog to the vet immediately!
BORDETELLA - Kennel cough (tracheobronchitis). This is a common bacterial illness found in dogs who are kept together such as kennels or veterinarian offices. You may treat your dog with an intra-nasal vaccine yearly to help reduce the chances of your dog getting kennel cough.
CANCER - Commonly associated with boxers, there are differerent kinds of cancers including lymphosarcoma, lymphoblast lymphosarcoma, and mast cell tumors. Please visit this site for more information on boxers and cancer. Click
CARDIOMYOPATHY - Heart muscle is thicker than it should be, so much so that it impedes the heart in functioning normally and predisposes to abnormal rhythms. Here is a link for more information on boxer cardiomyopathy. Click
CLAVAMOX - Broad spectum antibiotic that is good on respiratory and urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.
COCCIDIA - Coccidia are not worms; they are microscopic parasites which live within cells of the intestinal lining. Because they live in the intestinal tract and commonly cause diarrhea, they are often confused with worms. The most common drug used to eliminate coccidia is a sulfa type antibiotic. It is given for 10-14 days.
CLOMICALM® - A twice daily oral treatment for dogs which has been shown to be effective when administered in combination with behavioural modification techniques for the treatment of anxieties and stereotypies (obsessive compulsive disorder).
COPROPHAGIA - When a dog eats its own feces. This can be alleviated with behavioral training or additives to the food that although unnoticeable to humans, will repel the dog from eating its feces. Speak to your veterinarian before trying anything on your dog.
CORONAVIRUS - This highly contagious a viral disease of the intestines spreads through fecal transmission. It has a mere 1-4 day incubation period.
DEMODECTIC MANGE (Demodex) - Most common form of mange in dogs. It is caused by the demodectic mange mite, a parasite which lives in the hair follicles of affected dogs. Under the microscope, this mite appears shaped like an alligator with 8 legs. All dogs (and many humans) have a few of these mites on their skin. As long as the body's immune system is functioning, these mites cause no harm. Demodectic mange etica, most often occurs when a dog has an immature immune system, allowing the mites to grow rapidly. Therefore, this disease occurs primarily in dogs less than 12-18 months of age. In most cases, as a dog matures, the immune system also matures. Adult dogs which have the disease usually have defective immune systems.
D - Distemper
H - Hepatitis A2 (Adenovirus, type 2)
L - Leptospirosis
P - Parvovirus
P - Parainfluenza
D - Distemper
H - Hepatitis A2 (Adenovirus, type 2)
P - Parvovirus
P - Parainfluenza
C - Coronavirus
DISTEMPER - An airborne viral disease of the lungs, intestines and brain. It is highly contagious and is easily transmitted between dogs. Unfortunately, it is the leading world-wide cause of death in dogs.
DRONTAL - Broad spectrum dewormer that kills hookworms, roundworms, whipworms and tapeworms in cats and dogs.
FRONTLINE - Topical flea and tick treatment. The flea life cycle is broken because newly emerged adult fleas are killed before they lay eggs. Fleas can be controlled on your dog or cat and in your home just by treating your pet. In addition, your pet gets rapid relief from scratching caused by flea biting and irritation.
GIARDIA - Giardia are sometimes confused with worms because they invade the gastrointestinal tract and can cause diarrhea. They are not worms; instead, they are one-celled parasites classified as protozoa. Most dogs that are infected with Giardia do not have diarrhea or any other signs of illness. When the eggs (cysts) are found in the stool of a dog without diarrhea, they are generally considered a transient, insignificant finding. However, in puppies and debilitated adult dogs, they may cause severe, watery diarrhea that may be fatal.
HEARTGUARD - Heartguard is a once a month chewable that prevents heartworms while controlling hook, round, and whip worms. Heartguard is available in 3, 6 or 12 month supplies, and the color of the packs denotes the weight of the animal.
HEARTWORM - Heartworm is a major parasitic disease in dogs everywhere in the United States and worldwide. Mosquitoes transmit the disease. Veterinarians can effectively treat infected dogs, although preventing your dog from the initial infection is a far better option.
HEPATITIS - Disease which is caused by a virus which only affects canines and bears (different from the human virus). It affects primarily the liver, kidneys and lining of blood vessels.
HOOKWORM - Hookworms are parasites which get their name from the hook-like mouth parts they use to attach to the intestinal wall. They are only about 1/8" (3 mm) long and so small in diameter that you have to be looking very carefully to see them. Despite their small size, they suck large amounts of blood from the tiny vessels in the intestinal wall. A large number of hookworms can cause anemia. This problem is most common in puppies, but it will occasionally occur in adult dogs. In general, dogs tend to harbor very few hookworms compared to the number carried by infected dogs.
HOT SPOTS - Superficial pyoderma, a skin infection known to veterinarians as pyotraumatic dermatitis and to dog owners as hot spots. Hot spots are surface skin infections caused when populations of normal skin bacteria grow and overwhelm normal resistance. They are generally circular patches that lose hair, can be swollen, may exude a smelly pus, and can be painfully itchy, causing the dog to scratch, lick, or bite to the point of self-mutilation. Untreated hot spots can spread and provoke a normally even-tempered dog to growl or nip when touched.
HEART MURMUR - Abnormal sound in the heartbeat. Murmurs usually result from an irregular flow of blood through the heart, and in most cases, do not affect your overall health. Some, however, are due to underlying defects in the heart or its valves and may require treatment.
HEAT STROKE - Is a major problem in Arizona. Heat stroke occurs when pets are exposed to high temperatures and placed under stress. Animals require shade and cool water to help maintain normal body temperature. They rely on two cooling mechanisms (panting and sweating through the footpads) as well. One of the most frequent places for heat stroke to occur is in a parked car. With poor ventilation, the temperature rises quickly and your pet is not able to keep cool. Your pet will begin to breathe rapidly trying to cool off. The body temperature can rise 5-10 degrees. Vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures often follow and death can occur within minutes. If you suspect heat stroke, apply cool water to the entire animal and call your veterinarian immediately. By acclimating your pet to the heat and providing plenty of shade and cool water, heat exhaustion can be prevented.
HEARTWORM - Heartworm is a major parasitic disease in dogs everywhere in the United States and worldwide. Mosquitoes transmit the disease.
HIVES - Hives are bumps on the skin that are usually itchy and swollen. They range from nickel to quarter sized lesions and can be found anywhere on the body. Anything from food allergies, contact allergies, insect stings, heat, cold, drugs, and vaccinations can cause hives. It is really difficult to determine the cause of the hives. If you see an occasional case of the hives, this is not a matter for concern. If you see frequent recurrences of hives, then allergy testing and possibly biopsy should be considered to try to find the cause of the hives. When hives are seen as part of an anaphylactic allergic reaction, there is occasionally swelling of the throat area involving the laryngeal and pharyngeal area. If not treated immediately, this reaction can be fatal. In general, it would be a good idea to start some oral Benadryl and see your DVM. The Benadryl cannot treat hives that are already there, but will help to prevent further hives from forming. There is no way of telling if an allergic reaction will lead to a swelling of the airway. While very rare, this throat swelling is very dangerous and must be addressed at once. Doses of Benadryl ranging from 1/2 to 1 mg per pound could be used but it is always important to check with your vet before giving your dog any medication.
*If your dog is choking, gaging, or appears to be having difficulty breathing get your dog to the vet immediately!
HYDROXIZINE - Antihistamine used extensively for dogs with allergies
HYPOTHYROIDISM - Hypothyroidism is common endocrine (glandular) disorder in dogs. In affected dogs, the thyroid gland does not make enough of the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). These thyroid hormones are necessary to keep many body tissues and organs functioning normally. Thyroid hormones regulate the body's metabolic rate, so hypothyroid dogs are more likely to be sluggish and overweight. Some cases come on slowly and the signs can easily be missed.
INTERCEPTOR - Advanced medication that prevents heartworm and controls hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), roundworm and whipworm, all with a single, monthly tablet.
IVERMECTIN - For use in dogs to prevent canine heartworm disease by eliminating the tissue stage of heartworm larvae (Dirofilaria immitis ) up to a month after infection.
LEPTOSPIROSIS - Bacterial disease of the urinary system. Major carriers are rats which get into animal feeds and urinate, and cattle in some areas, which may pass to working dogs.
LUXATING PATELLA - The patella, or knee cap, should be located in the center of the knee joint. The term "luxating" means out of place or dislocated. Therefore, a luxating patella is a knee cap that moves out of its normal location.
MAST CELL TUMOR - The mast cell is a histamine-containing element of the immune system, and mast cell tumors are composed of these cells. Mast cells are a special type of blood cell that is normally involved in the body's response to allergens and inflammation. Sometimes, these cells can become cancerous and develop into mast cell tumors. The most common locations for these tumors are the skin, spleen, liver and bone marrow. They are malignant tumors that have the ability to spread to other organs.
NEUTER (Orchetomy) - Neutering is the removal of a dog's testicles. It is done to minimize roaming, aggressive behavior, prostate problems, and most importantly prevents a male dog from impregnating females.
NEUTICLES - Testicular implants for animals that are neutered.
OTOMAX - Steroid ointment used to treat otitis (ear infections).
PANACUR - Treatment of 2 types of roundworms (ascarids), 2 types of hookworms, whipworms, lung fluke, 1 type of tapeworm, lung worm and lung fluke in dogs. Other medications have better results for tapeworms. Has also been used in combination with albendazole to treat giardia although it is not labeled for that use.
PANCREATITIS - Pancreatitis is a condition where the pancreas becomes inflamed. The time course can be either chronic (slow and smoldering over weeks to months) or acute (rapid in onset).
PARAINFLUENZA - infectious bronchitis.
PARVO (Parvovirus)- A viral disease of the intestines. This disease appeared suddenly in U.S. during the spring of 1978. It has no breed disposition. It is highly contagious, mainly through fecal contamination. It is easily carried and hard to kill in the environment. It can be fatal if not treated or caught early enough.
PREDNISONE - Anti-inflammatory cortisteroid.
PROHEART 6 VACCINE - 6 month heartworm preventative.
*Due to a high number of adverse reactions including fatalities in boxers and other breeds of dogs we do not recommend use of the Proheart 6 shot.
PYOMETRA - Infection of the uterus.
PYRANTEL - Over the counter medication used to treat intestinal worm infections such as roundworm and hookworm.
RABIES - Fatal disease transmitted to humans and other animals.
REVOLUTION - Treatment and prevention of fleas, ear mites, some internal parasites, and some mites and ticks and the prevention of heartworm disease.
RIMADYL - Anti-inflammatory drug to treat arthritis in dogs.
RINGWORM - Skin disease caused by a fungus. There are four fungal species affecting dogs which can cause the disease that we call ringworm. These may also affect humans. The fungi live in hair follicles and cause the hair shafts to break off at the skin line. This usually results in round patches of hair loss. As the fungus multiplies, the lesions may become irregularly shaped and spread over the dog's body.
ROUNDWORM - Worms which have round bodies. On average, they are about 3-5 inches (7-12 cm) long. They live in the dog's intestines and consume partially digested food. Unlike hookworms, they do not attach to the intestinal wall; rather, they literally swim in their food. Roundworms, sometimes called ascarids, pass moderate numbers of microscopic eggs which are found in the dog's stool. Like hookworm eggs, they must be found with a microscope.
SARCOPTIC MANGE - Caused by a mite that burrows just beneath the surface of the skin. It may also crawl around on the skin surface. This mite feeds on material in and on the skin. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious to other dogs; it is also contagious to humans. The dog's bedding should be washed in hot water with bleach or, preferably, discarded. Although the mites are not able to complete their life cycle on humans, they will cause quite a bit of itching before they finally die.
SUB-AORTIC STENOSIS (SAS) - Is a common congenital (present at birth) defect, found most often in large dog breeds. This condition is an abnormal narrowing of the juncture between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta. The narrowing is usually the result of a scar like tissue which has formed a ring just below the aortic valve.
SENTINEL - Prevention of heartworm infection, control of 1 type of hookworm, treatment of 2 types of roundworms (ascarids), and whipworms in dogs.
SEPARATION ANXIETY - Separation anxiety in dogs is characterized by disruptive behavior when left alone, due to distress at being separated from the person or persons to whom it is attached.
SPAY (Ovariohysterectomy) - Removal of the ovaries and uterus. The chance of breast cancer in older dogs is decreased by 40-100 times by spaying, while eliminating the chance of cervical cancer or uterine disease. It prevents dogs from getting uterine infections later in life. An infected uterus is called a pyometra, and is a serious disease. Also prevents unwanted pregnancies leading to overpopulation of all breeds.
TAPEWORM - Parasite attaches to the small intestinal wall by hook-like mouthparts. Adult tapeworms may reach 8 inches (20 cm) in length. The adult worm is actually made up of many small segments about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long. As the tail end of the worm matures, the terminal segments break off and pass into the stool. Occasionally, the mobile segments can be seen crawling near the anus or on the surface of a fresh bowel movement. These segments look like grains of rice and contain tapeworm eggs; the eggs are released into the environment when the segment dries. The dried segments are small (about 1/16", or 2 mm), hard and golden in color. These dried segments can sometimes be seen stuck to the hair around the dog's anus.
TICK FEVER - Tick Fever is a general term refering to any disease or illness that is passed from a tick to your dog. The most prevelant types of tick borne illness are:
LYME DISEASE (Borrelia) - Lyme Disease is a serious infectious illness threatening both humans and dogs who spend their time in tick infected areas. It is caused by Borrelia burgdosferi, a spiral-shaped bacteria known as a spirochete.
CANINE EHRLICHIOSIS - A rickettsial disease transmitted by ticks infected with the ehrlichia organism.
CANINE BABESIOSIS - A protozoan disease transmitted by ticks infected with the babesia organism.
Both ehrlichiosis and babesiosis can present very confusing clinical manifestations--long after exposure to the tick. Although these infections are caused by two distinctly different organisms, they share certain characteristics: Both are transmitted by the brown dog tick; both organisms enter the dog's blood system and wreck havoc in the blood cells and immune system. Except for severe bleeding episodes that may occur after surgery the symptoms of this intracellular activity are likely to be subtle or unapparent. As the disease progresses, the organisms will multiply within the body and over a period of years slowly begin their treacherous course of debilitating multiple organ systems. Please visit this site for more information on ehrlichiosis and babesiosis. Click
TOAD POISONING - The Colorado river toad (Bufo Alvarius), commonly found in Arizona, can pose a threat to your pets. Mouthing or ingestion of these toads can cause a mild to severe toxicity in dogs and cats since toads have skin glands that contain toxins. Toad poisoning can be diagnosed rapidly because often times the owner observes the pet playing with the toad. The most common initial presenting clinical signs are mouth irritation and excessive drooling. Affected animals may also develop heart arrhythmias, seizures, weakness, collapse, vomiting and diarrhea. Severe toxicities can quickly lead to death if not treated. If a pet is observed playing with a toad, rapid intervention by the owner is necessary. The first step is to wash the pet's mouth thoroughly with water. It is then necessary to seek veterinary care as soon as possible.
VALLEY FEVER (Coccidioides immitiis) - Found in the lower desert areas of Arizona, Southwestern Texas, and the California deserts, and not prominently known to the rest of the United States as a common disease. Its not contagious from one animal to another or to human. It is found in the soil as a dormant fungal spore, that is transmitted by inhalation where dormant spores find a warm, moist host in which to become active. Coughing, listlessness and sluggish, lack of appetite, and fever are the symptoms of the "primary" VF disease. At this point it is limited to the lungs. Any sign of these symptoms have your animal checked, especially if you live in these areas. If it goes beyond the lungs to other organs it is now classified as "disseminated" VF. Here the symptoms include lack of appetite, weight loss, severe lethargy,possible swollen joints or bone inflammation causing lameness (limping). It can also spread to the brain resulting in seizures. Some animals are left with deformities of the bone. Please visit this site for more information on Valley Fever. Click
WHIPWORM - Intestinal parasites which are about 1/4 inch (6 mm) long. They live in the large intestine of dogs where they cause severe irritation to the lining of these organs. This results in watery, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, and general debilitation. They are one of the most pathogenic (harmful) worms found in dogs.
Vaccinaton Schedule -
Puppies - 6 weeks to 1 year
6 to 8 weeks - First puppy shot (DHLPP) + Corona
11 to 12 weeks - Second puppy shot (DHLPP) + Corona
15 to 16 weeks - Third puppy shot (DHLPP) + Corona
Over 4 months - Rabies (repeat l year later)
7 to 9 months - First heartworm test
Adult Dogs - After 1 year
DHPPC - Every 3 years
Heartworm test - Yearly
Rabies - Every 3 years (after second Rabies shot)
Bordetella - Yearly